codes-darshan-io-wrkld.c 53.4 KB
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/*
 * Copyright (C) 2013 University of Chicago.
 * See COPYRIGHT notice in top-level directory.
 *
 */
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#include <assert.h>
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#include <math.h>
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#include "codes/codes-workload.h"
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#include "codes/quickhash.h"
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#include "codes-workload-method.h"
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#include "darshan-logutils.h"
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#define DEF_INTER_IO_DELAY_PCT 0.2
#define DEF_INTER_CYC_DELAY_PCT 0.4

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#define DARSHAN_NEGLIGIBLE_DELAY .001

#define RANK_HASH_TABLE_SIZE 397

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#define IO_IS_IN_SIZE_BIN_RANGE(size, bin_ndx, bin_min_sizes)                       \
        ((bin_ndx == 9) ?                                                           \
        (size >= bin_min_sizes[bin_ndx]) :                                          \
        ((size >= bin_min_sizes[bin_ndx]) && (size < bin_min_sizes[bin_ndx + 1])))

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/* structure for storing a darshan workload operation (a codes op with 2 timestamps) */
struct darshan_io_op
{
    struct codes_workload_op codes_op;
    double start_time;
    double end_time;
};

/* I/O context structure managed by each rank in the darshan workload */
struct rank_io_context
{
    int64_t my_rank;
    double last_op_time;
    void *io_op_dat;
    struct qhash_head hash_link;
};

/* Darshan workload generator's implementation of the CODES workload API */
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static int darshan_io_workload_load(const char *params, int rank);
static void darshan_io_workload_get_next(int rank, struct codes_workload_op *op);
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static int darshan_rank_hash_compare(void *key, struct qhash_head *link);

/* Darshan I/O op data structure access (insert, remove) abstraction */
static void *darshan_init_io_op_dat(void);
static void darshan_insert_next_io_op(void *io_op_dat, struct darshan_io_op *io_op);
static void darshan_remove_next_io_op(void *io_op_dat, struct darshan_io_op *io_op,
                                      double last_op_time);
static void darshan_finalize_io_op_dat(void *io_op_dat);
static int darshan_io_op_compare(const void *p1, const void *p2);

/* Helper functions for implementing the (complex, nonfactored) Darshan workload generator */
static void generate_psx_ind_file_events(struct darshan_file *file,
                                         struct rank_io_context *io_context);
static void generate_psx_coll_file_events(struct darshan_file *file,
                                          struct rank_io_context *io_context,
                                          int64_t nprocs, int64_t aggregator_cnt);
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static double generate_psx_open_event(struct darshan_file *file, int create_flag,
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                                      double meta_op_time, double cur_time,
                                      struct rank_io_context *io_context);
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static double generate_psx_close_event(struct darshan_file *file, double meta_op_time,
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                                       double cur_time, struct rank_io_context *io_context);
static double generate_barrier_event(struct darshan_file *file, int64_t root, double cur_time,
                                     struct rank_io_context *io_context);
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static double generate_psx_ind_io_events(struct darshan_file *file, int64_t io_ops_this_cycle,
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                                         double inter_io_delay, double meta_op_time,
                                         double cur_time, struct rank_io_context *io_context);
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static double generate_psx_coll_io_events(struct darshan_file *file, int64_t ind_io_ops_this_cycle,
                                          int64_t coll_io_ops_this_cycle, int64_t nprocs,
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                                          int64_t aggregator_cnt, double inter_io_delay,
                                          double meta_op_time, double cur_time,
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                                          struct rank_io_context *io_context);
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static void determine_io_params(struct darshan_file *file, int write_flag, int coll_flag,
                                int64_t io_cycles, size_t *io_sz, off_t *io_off);
static void calc_io_delays(struct darshan_file *file, int64_t num_opens, int64_t num_io_ops,
                           double delay_per_cycle, double *first_io_delay, double *close_delay,
                           double *inter_open_delay, double *inter_io_delay);
static void file_sanity_check(struct darshan_file *file, struct darshan_job *job);

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/* workload method name and function pointers for the CODES workload API */
struct codes_workload_method darshan_io_workload_method =
{
    .method_name = "darshan_io_workload",
    .codes_workload_load = darshan_io_workload_load,
    .codes_workload_get_next = darshan_io_workload_get_next,
};

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/* hash table to store per-rank workload contexts */
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static struct qhash_table *rank_tbl = NULL;
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static int rank_tbl_pop = 0;
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/* load the workload generator for this rank, given input params */
static int darshan_io_workload_load(const char *params, int rank)
{
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    darshan_params *d_params = (darshan_params *)params;
    darshan_fd logfile_fd;
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    struct darshan_job job;
    struct darshan_file next_file;
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    struct rank_io_context *my_ctx;
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    int ret;
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    if (!d_params)
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        return -1;

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    /* open the darshan log to begin reading in file i/o info */
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    logfile_fd = darshan_log_open(d_params->log_file_path, "r");
    if (logfile_fd < 0)
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        return -1;
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    /* get the per-job stats from the log */
    ret = darshan_log_getjob(logfile_fd, &job);
    if (ret < 0)
    {
        darshan_log_close(logfile_fd);
        return -1;
    }

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    /* allocate the i/o context needed by this rank */
    my_ctx = malloc(sizeof(struct rank_io_context));
    if (!my_ctx)
    {
        darshan_log_close(logfile_fd);
        return -1;
    }
    my_ctx->my_rank = (int64_t)rank;
    my_ctx->last_op_time = 0.0;
    my_ctx->io_op_dat = darshan_init_io_op_dat();

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    /* loop over all files contained in the log file */
    while ((ret = darshan_log_getfile(logfile_fd, &job, &next_file)) > 0)
    {
        /* generate all i/o events contained in this independent file */
        if (next_file.rank == rank)
        {
            /* make sure the file i/o counters are valid */
            file_sanity_check(&next_file, &job);

            /* generate i/o events and store them in this rank's workload context */
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            generate_psx_ind_file_events(&next_file, my_ctx);
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        }
        /* generate all i/o events involving this rank in this collective file */
        else if (next_file.rank == -1)
        {
            /* make sure the file i/o counters are valid */
            file_sanity_check(&next_file, &job);
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            /* generate collective i/o events and store them in the rank context */
            generate_psx_coll_file_events(&next_file, my_ctx, job.nprocs, d_params->aggregator_cnt);
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        }
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        assert(next_file.counters[CP_POSIX_OPENS] == 0);
        assert(next_file.counters[CP_POSIX_READS] == 0);
        assert(next_file.counters[CP_POSIX_WRITES] == 0);
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    }
    if (ret < 0)
        return -1;

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    darshan_log_close(logfile_fd);
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    /* finalize the rank's i/o context so i/o ops may be retrieved later (in order) */
    darshan_finalize_io_op_dat(my_ctx->io_op_dat);

    /* initialize the hash table of rank contexts, if it has not been initialized */
    if (!rank_tbl)
    {
        rank_tbl = qhash_init(darshan_rank_hash_compare, quickhash_64bit_hash, RANK_HASH_TABLE_SIZE);
        if (!rank_tbl)
            return -1;
    }

    /* add this rank context to the hash table */
    qhash_add(rank_tbl, &(my_ctx->my_rank), &(my_ctx->hash_link));
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    rank_tbl_pop++;
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    return 0;
}

/* pull the next event (independent or collective) for this rank from its event context */
static void darshan_io_workload_get_next(int rank, struct codes_workload_op *op)
{
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    int64_t my_rank = (int64_t)rank;
    struct qhash_head *hash_link = NULL;
    struct rank_io_context *tmp = NULL;
    struct darshan_io_op next_io_op;

    /* find i/o context for this rank in the rank hash table */
    hash_link = qhash_search(rank_tbl, &my_rank);

    /* terminate the workload if there is no valid rank context */
    if (!hash_link)
    {
        op->op_type = CODES_WK_END;
        return;
    }

    /* get access to the rank's io_context data */
    tmp = qhash_entry(hash_link, struct rank_io_context, hash_link);
    assert(tmp->my_rank == my_rank);

    /* get the next darshan i/o op out of this rank's context */
    darshan_remove_next_io_op(tmp->io_op_dat, &next_io_op, tmp->last_op_time);

    /* free the rank's i/o context if this is the last i/o op */
    if (next_io_op.codes_op.op_type == CODES_WK_END)
    {
        qhash_del(hash_link);
        free(tmp);
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        rank_tbl_pop--;
        if (!rank_tbl_pop)
            qhash_finalize(rank_tbl);
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    }
    else
    {
        /* else, set the last op time to be the end of the returned op */
        tmp->last_op_time = next_io_op.end_time;
    }

    /* return the codes op contained in the darshan i/o op */
    *op = next_io_op.codes_op;
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    return;
}

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/* comparison function for comparing two hash keys (used for storing multiple io contexts) */
static int darshan_rank_hash_compare(
    void *key, struct qhash_head *link)
{
    int64_t *in_rank = (int64_t *)key;
    struct rank_io_context *tmp;

    tmp = qhash_entry(link, struct rank_io_context, hash_link);
    if (tmp->my_rank == *in_rank)
        return 1;

    return 0;
}

/*****************************************/
/*                                       */
/*   Darshan I/O op storage abstraction  */
/*                                       */
/*****************************************/

#define DARSHAN_IO_OP_INC_CNT 100000

/* dynamically allocated array data structure for storing darshan i/o events */
struct darshan_io_dat_array
{
    struct darshan_io_op *op_array;
    int64_t op_arr_ndx;
    int64_t op_arr_cnt;
};

/* initialize the dynamic array data structure */
static void *darshan_init_io_op_dat()
{
    struct darshan_io_dat_array *tmp;

    /* initialize the array data structure */
    tmp = malloc(sizeof(struct darshan_io_dat_array));
    assert(tmp);
    tmp->op_array = malloc(DARSHAN_IO_OP_INC_CNT * sizeof(struct darshan_io_op));
    assert(tmp->op_array);
    tmp->op_arr_ndx = 0;
    tmp->op_arr_cnt = DARSHAN_IO_OP_INC_CNT;

    /* return the array info for this rank's i/o context */
    return (void *)tmp;
}

/* store the i/o event in this rank's i/o context */
static void darshan_insert_next_io_op(
    void *io_op_dat, struct darshan_io_op *io_op)
{
    struct darshan_io_dat_array *array = (struct darshan_io_dat_array *)io_op_dat;
    struct darshan_io_op *tmp;

    /* realloc array if it is already full */
    if (array->op_arr_ndx == array->op_arr_cnt)
    {
        tmp = malloc((array->op_arr_cnt + DARSHAN_IO_OP_INC_CNT) * sizeof(struct darshan_io_op));
        assert(tmp);
        memcpy(tmp, array->op_array, array->op_arr_cnt * sizeof(struct darshan_io_op));
        free(array->op_array);
        array->op_array = tmp;
        array->op_arr_cnt += DARSHAN_IO_OP_INC_CNT;
    }

    /* add the darshan i/o op to the array */
    array->op_array[array->op_arr_ndx++] = *io_op;

    return;
}

/* pull the next i/o event out of this rank's i/o context */
static void darshan_remove_next_io_op(
    void *io_op_dat, struct darshan_io_op *io_op, double last_op_time)
{
    struct darshan_io_dat_array *array = (struct darshan_io_dat_array *)io_op_dat;

    /* if the array has been scanned completely already */
    if (array->op_arr_ndx == array->op_arr_cnt)
    {
        /* no more events just end the workload */
        io_op->codes_op.op_type = CODES_WK_END;

        /* free data structures */
        free(array->op_array);
        free(array);
    }
    else
    {
        struct darshan_io_op *tmp = &(array->op_array[array->op_arr_ndx]);

        if ((tmp->start_time - last_op_time) < DARSHAN_NEGLIGIBLE_DELAY)
        {
            /* there is no delay, just return the next op in the array */
            *io_op = *tmp;
            array->op_arr_ndx++;
        }
        else
        {
            /* there is a nonnegligible delay, so generate and return a delay event */
            io_op->codes_op.op_type = CODES_WK_DELAY;
            io_op->codes_op.u.delay.seconds = tmp->start_time - last_op_time;
            io_op->start_time = last_op_time;
            io_op->end_time = tmp->start_time;
        }
    }
}

/* sort the dynamic array in order of i/o op start time */
static void darshan_finalize_io_op_dat(
    void *io_op_dat)
{
    struct darshan_io_dat_array *array = (struct darshan_io_dat_array *)io_op_dat;

    /* sort this rank's i/o op list */
    qsort(array->op_array, array->op_arr_ndx, sizeof(struct darshan_io_op), darshan_io_op_compare);
    array->op_arr_cnt = array->op_arr_ndx;
    array->op_arr_ndx = 0;

    return;
}

/* comparison function for sorting darshan_io_ops in order of start timestamps */
static int darshan_io_op_compare(
    const void *p1, const void *p2)
{
    struct darshan_io_op *a = (struct darshan_io_op *)p1;
    struct darshan_io_op *b = (struct darshan_io_op *)p2;

    if (a->start_time < b->start_time)
        return -1;
    else if (a->start_time > b->start_time)
        return 1;
    else
        return 0;
}

/*****************************************/
/*                                       */
/* Darshan workload generation functions */
/*                                       */
/*****************************************/
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/* generate events for an independently opened file, and store these events */
static void generate_psx_ind_file_events(
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    struct darshan_file *file, struct rank_io_context *io_context)
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{
    int64_t io_ops_this_cycle;
    double cur_time = file->fcounters[CP_F_OPEN_TIMESTAMP];
    double delay_per_open;
    double first_io_delay = 0.0;
    double close_delay = 0.0;
    double inter_open_delay = 0.0;
    double inter_io_delay = 0.0;
    double meta_op_time;
    int create_flag;
    int64_t i;

    /* if the file was never really opened, just return because we have no timing info */
    if (file->counters[CP_POSIX_OPENS] == 0)
        return;

    /* determine delay available per open-io-close cycle */
    delay_per_open = (file->fcounters[CP_F_CLOSE_TIMESTAMP] - file->fcounters[CP_F_OPEN_TIMESTAMP] -
                     file->fcounters[CP_F_POSIX_READ_TIME] - file->fcounters[CP_F_POSIX_WRITE_TIME] -
                     file->fcounters[CP_F_POSIX_META_TIME]) / file->counters[CP_POSIX_OPENS];

    /* calculate synthetic delay values */
    calc_io_delays(file, file->counters[CP_POSIX_OPENS],
                   file->counters[CP_POSIX_READS] + file->counters[CP_POSIX_WRITES],
                   delay_per_open, &first_io_delay, &close_delay,
                   &inter_open_delay, &inter_io_delay);

    /* calculate average meta op time (for i/o and opens/closes) */
    /* TODO: this needs to be updated when we add in stat, seek, etc. */
    meta_op_time = file->fcounters[CP_F_POSIX_META_TIME] / ((2 * file->counters[CP_POSIX_OPENS]) +
                   file->counters[CP_POSIX_READS] + file->counters[CP_POSIX_WRITES]);

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    /* set the create flag if the file was written to */
    if (file->counters[CP_BYTES_WRITTEN])
    {
        create_flag = 1;
    }
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    /* generate open/io/close events for all cycles */
    /* TODO: add stats */
    for (i = 0; file->counters[CP_POSIX_OPENS]; i++, file->counters[CP_POSIX_OPENS]--)
    {
        /* generate an open event */
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        cur_time = generate_psx_open_event(file, create_flag, meta_op_time, cur_time, io_context);
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        create_flag = 0;

        /* account for potential delay from first open to first io */
        cur_time += first_io_delay;

        io_ops_this_cycle = ceil((double)(file->counters[CP_POSIX_READS] +
                                 file->counters[CP_POSIX_WRITES]) /
                                 file->counters[CP_POSIX_OPENS]);

        /* perform the calculated number of i/o operations for this file open */
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        cur_time = generate_psx_ind_io_events(file, io_ops_this_cycle, inter_io_delay,
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                                              meta_op_time, cur_time, io_context);
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        /* account for potential delay from last io to close */
        cur_time += close_delay;

        /* generate a close for the open event at the start of the loop */
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        cur_time = generate_psx_close_event(file, meta_op_time, cur_time, io_context);
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        /* account for potential interopen delay if more than one open */
        if (file->counters[CP_POSIX_OPENS] > 1)
        {
            cur_time += inter_open_delay;
        }
    }
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    return;
}

/* generate events for the i/o ops stored in a collectively opened file for this rank */
void generate_psx_coll_file_events(
    struct darshan_file *file, struct rank_io_context *io_context,
    int64_t nprocs, int64_t in_agg_cnt)
{
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    int64_t open_cycles;
    int64_t total_ind_opens;
    int64_t total_coll_opens;
    int64_t ind_opens_this_cycle;
    int64_t coll_opens_this_cycle;
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    int64_t extra_opens = 0;
    int64_t extra_io_ops = 0;
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    int64_t total_io_ops = file->counters[CP_POSIX_READS] + file->counters[CP_POSIX_WRITES];
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    int64_t total_ind_io_ops;
    int64_t total_coll_io_ops;
    int64_t ind_io_ops_this_cycle;
    int64_t coll_io_ops_this_cycle;
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    int64_t rank_cnt;
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    int create_flag = 0;
    double cur_time = file->fcounters[CP_F_OPEN_TIMESTAMP];
    double delay_per_cycle;
    double first_io_delay = 0.0;
    double close_delay = 0.0;
    double inter_cycle_delay = 0.0;
    double inter_io_delay = 0.0;
    double meta_op_time;
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    int64_t i;
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    /* the collective file was never opened (i.e., just stat-ed), so return */
    if (!(file->counters[CP_POSIX_OPENS]))
        return;

    /*  in this case, posix opens are less than mpi opens...
     *  this is probably a mpi deferred open -- assume app will not use this, currently.
     */
    assert(file->counters[CP_POSIX_OPENS] >= nprocs);

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    if (file->counters[CP_COLL_OPENS] || file->counters[CP_INDEP_OPENS])
    {
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        extra_opens = file->counters[CP_POSIX_OPENS] - file->counters[CP_COLL_OPENS] -
                      file->counters[CP_INDEP_OPENS];
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        total_coll_opens = file->counters[CP_COLL_OPENS];
        total_ind_opens = file->counters[CP_POSIX_OPENS] - total_coll_opens - extra_opens;
        if (total_coll_opens)
            open_cycles = total_coll_opens / nprocs;
        else
            open_cycles = ceil((double)total_ind_opens / nprocs);
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        total_ind_io_ops = file->counters[CP_INDEP_READS] + file->counters[CP_INDEP_WRITES];
        total_coll_io_ops = (file->counters[CP_COLL_READS] + file->counters[CP_COLL_WRITES]) / nprocs;
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    }
    else
    {
        extra_opens = file->counters[CP_POSIX_OPENS] % nprocs;
        if (extra_opens && ((file->counters[CP_POSIX_OPENS] / nprocs) % extra_opens))
        {
            extra_opens = 0;
        }
        else
        {
            extra_io_ops = total_io_ops % nprocs;
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            if (extra_io_ops != extra_opens)
            {
                extra_opens = 0;
                extra_io_ops = 0;
            }
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        }

        total_coll_opens = 0;
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        total_ind_opens = file->counters[CP_POSIX_OPENS] - extra_opens;
        open_cycles = ceil((double)total_ind_opens / nprocs);
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        total_ind_io_ops = total_io_ops - extra_io_ops;
        total_coll_io_ops = 0;
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    }
    assert(extra_opens <= open_cycles);

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    /* determine delay information */
    delay_per_cycle = (file->fcounters[CP_F_CLOSE_TIMESTAMP] -
                      file->fcounters[CP_F_OPEN_TIMESTAMP] -
                      (file->fcounters[CP_F_POSIX_READ_TIME] / nprocs) -
                      (file->fcounters[CP_F_POSIX_WRITE_TIME] / nprocs) -
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                      (file->fcounters[CP_F_POSIX_META_TIME] / nprocs)) / open_cycles;
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    /* calculate average meta op time (for i/o and opens/closes) */
    meta_op_time = file->fcounters[CP_F_POSIX_META_TIME] / ((2 * file->counters[CP_POSIX_OPENS]) +
                   file->counters[CP_POSIX_READS] + file->counters[CP_POSIX_WRITES]);

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    /* TODO calc delays */

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    /* it is rare to overwrite existing files, so set the create flag */
    if (file->counters[CP_BYTES_WRITTEN])
    {
        create_flag = 1;
    }
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    /* generate all events for this collectively opened file */
    for (i = 0; i < open_cycles; i++)
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    {
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        ind_opens_this_cycle = ceil((double)total_ind_opens / (open_cycles - i));
        coll_opens_this_cycle = total_coll_opens / (open_cycles - i);
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        /* assign any extra opens to rank 0 (these may correspond to file creations or
         * header reads/writes)
         */
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        if (extra_opens && !(i % (open_cycles / extra_opens)))
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        {
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            file->rank = 0;

            cur_time = generate_psx_open_event(file, create_flag, meta_op_time, cur_time, io_context);
            create_flag = 0;

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            if (!file->counters[CP_COLL_OPENS] && !file->counters[CP_INDEP_OPENS])
            {
                cur_time = generate_psx_coll_io_events(file, 1, 0, nprocs, nprocs, 0.0,
                                                       meta_op_time, cur_time, io_context);
                extra_io_ops--;
            }
568

569 570 571 572 573 574
            cur_time = generate_psx_close_event(file, meta_op_time, cur_time, io_context);

            file->rank = -1;
            file->counters[CP_POSIX_OPENS]--;
        }

575
        while (ind_opens_this_cycle)
576
        {
577 578 579 580 581
            if (ind_opens_this_cycle >= nprocs)
                rank_cnt = nprocs;
            else
                rank_cnt = ind_opens_this_cycle;

582 583 584 585
            cur_time = generate_psx_open_event(file, create_flag, meta_op_time,
                                               cur_time, io_context);
            create_flag = 0;

586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594
            cur_time += first_io_delay;

            ind_io_ops_this_cycle = ceil(((double)total_ind_io_ops / total_ind_opens) * rank_cnt);
            cur_time = generate_psx_coll_io_events(file, ind_io_ops_this_cycle, 0, nprocs,
                                                   rank_cnt, inter_io_delay, meta_op_time,
                                                   cur_time, io_context);
            total_ind_io_ops -= ind_io_ops_this_cycle;

            cur_time += close_delay;
595

596 597
            cur_time = generate_psx_close_event(file, meta_op_time, cur_time, io_context);

598 599 600 601 602 603
            file->counters[CP_POSIX_OPENS] -= rank_cnt;
            ind_opens_this_cycle -= rank_cnt;
            total_ind_opens -= rank_cnt;

            if (file->counters[CP_POSIX_OPENS])
                cur_time += inter_cycle_delay;
604 605
        }

606
        while (coll_opens_this_cycle)
607
        {
608
            assert(!create_flag);
609

610
            cur_time = generate_barrier_event(file, 0, cur_time, io_context);
611 612 613 614

            cur_time = generate_psx_open_event(file, create_flag, meta_op_time,
                                               cur_time, io_context);

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            cur_time += first_io_delay;

            if (file->counters[CP_INDEP_OPENS])
                ind_io_ops_this_cycle = 0;
            else
                ind_io_ops_this_cycle = ceil((double)total_ind_io_ops / 
                                             (file->counters[CP_COLL_OPENS] / nprocs));

            coll_io_ops_this_cycle = ceil((double)total_coll_io_ops / 
                                          (file->counters[CP_COLL_OPENS] / nprocs));
            cur_time = generate_psx_coll_io_events(file, ind_io_ops_this_cycle,
                                                   coll_io_ops_this_cycle, nprocs, in_agg_cnt,
                                                   inter_io_delay, meta_op_time,
                                                   cur_time, io_context);
            total_ind_io_ops -= ind_io_ops_this_cycle;
            total_coll_io_ops -= coll_io_ops_this_cycle;

            cur_time += close_delay;
633

634 635 636
            cur_time = generate_psx_close_event(file, meta_op_time, cur_time, io_context);

            file->counters[CP_POSIX_OPENS] -= nprocs;
637 638
            file->counters[CP_COLL_OPENS] -= nprocs;
            coll_opens_this_cycle -= nprocs;
639 640 641 642
            total_coll_opens -= nprocs;

            if (file->counters[CP_POSIX_OPENS])
                cur_time += inter_cycle_delay;
643 644
        }
    }
645 646 647 648 649 650

    return;
}

/* fill in an open event structure and store it with the rank context */
static double generate_psx_open_event(
651 652
    struct darshan_file *file, int create_flag, double meta_op_time,
    double cur_time, struct rank_io_context *io_context)
653
{
654 655 656 657 658 659 660
    struct darshan_io_op next_io_op = 
    {
        .codes_op.op_type = CODES_WK_OPEN,
        .codes_op.u.open.file_id = file->hash,
        .codes_op.u.open.create_flag = create_flag,
        .start_time = cur_time
    };
661 662 663

    /* set the end time of the event based on time spent in POSIX meta operations */
    cur_time += meta_op_time;
664
    next_io_op.end_time = cur_time;
665

666 667 668
    /* store the open event (if this rank performed it) */
    if ((file->rank == io_context->my_rank) || (file->rank == -1))
        darshan_insert_next_io_op(io_context->io_op_dat, &next_io_op);
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    return cur_time;
}

/* fill in a close event structure and store it with the rank context */
static double generate_psx_close_event(
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    struct darshan_file *file, double meta_op_time, double cur_time,
    struct rank_io_context *io_context)
677
{
678 679 680 681 682 683
    struct darshan_io_op next_io_op =
    {
        .codes_op.op_type = CODES_WK_CLOSE,
        .codes_op.u.close.file_id = file->hash,
        .start_time = cur_time
    };
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    /* set the end time of the event based on time spent in POSIX meta operations */
    cur_time += meta_op_time;
687
    next_io_op.end_time = cur_time;
688

689 690 691
    /* store the close event (if this rank performed it) */
    if ((file->rank == io_context->my_rank) || (file->rank == -1))
        darshan_insert_next_io_op(io_context->io_op_dat, &next_io_op);
692 693 694 695 696 697

    return cur_time;
}

/* fill in a barrier event structure and store it with the rank context */
static double generate_barrier_event(
698
    struct darshan_file *file, int64_t root, double cur_time, struct rank_io_context *io_context)
699
{
700 701 702 703 704 705 706
    struct darshan_io_op next_io_op =
    {
        .codes_op.op_type = CODES_WK_BARRIER, 
        .codes_op.u.barrier.count = -1, /* all processes */
        .codes_op.u.barrier.root = root,
        .start_time = cur_time
    };
707 708

    cur_time += .000001; /* small synthetic delay representing time to barrier */
709
    next_io_op.end_time = cur_time;
710

711 712 713
    /* store the barrier event */
    if ((file->rank == -1) || (file->rank == io_context->my_rank))
        darshan_insert_next_io_op(io_context->io_op_dat, &next_io_op);
714 715 716 717 718 719

    return cur_time;
}

/* generate all i/o events for one independent file open and store them with the rank context */
static double generate_psx_ind_io_events(
720 721
    struct darshan_file *file, int64_t io_ops_this_cycle, double inter_io_delay,
    double meta_op_time, double cur_time, struct rank_io_context *io_context)
722 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 730
{
    static int rw = -1; /* rw = 1 for write, 0 for read, -1 for uninitialized */
    static int64_t io_ops_this_rw;
    static double rd_bw = 0.0, wr_bw = 0.0;
    int64_t psx_rw_ops_remaining = file->counters[CP_POSIX_READS] + file->counters[CP_POSIX_WRITES];
    double io_op_time;
    size_t io_sz;
    off_t io_off;
    int64_t i;
731
    struct darshan_io_op next_io_op;
732 733 734 735 736 737 738 739 740 741 742 743 744 745 746 747 748 749 750 751 752 753 754 755 756 757 758 759 760 761 762 763 764 765 766 767 768 769 770 771

    /* if there are no i/o ops, just return immediately */
    if (!io_ops_this_cycle)
        return cur_time;

    /* initialze static variables when a new file is opened */
    if (rw == -1)
    {
        /* initialize rw to be the first i/o operation found in the log */
        if (file->fcounters[CP_F_WRITE_START_TIMESTAMP] == 0.0)
            rw = 0;
        else if (file->fcounters[CP_F_READ_START_TIMESTAMP] == 0.0)
            rw = 1;
        else
            rw = (file->fcounters[CP_F_READ_START_TIMESTAMP] <
                  file->fcounters[CP_F_WRITE_START_TIMESTAMP]) ? 0 : 1;

        /* determine how many io ops to do before next rw switch */
        if (!rw)
            io_ops_this_rw = file->counters[CP_POSIX_READS] /
                             ((file->counters[CP_RW_SWITCHES] / 2) + 1);
        else
            io_ops_this_rw = file->counters[CP_POSIX_WRITES] /
                             ((file->counters[CP_RW_SWITCHES] / 2) + 1);

        /* initialize the rd and wr bandwidth values using total io size and time */
        if (file->fcounters[CP_F_POSIX_READ_TIME])
            rd_bw = file->counters[CP_BYTES_READ] / file->fcounters[CP_F_POSIX_READ_TIME];
        if (file->fcounters[CP_F_POSIX_WRITE_TIME])
            wr_bw = file->counters[CP_BYTES_WRITTEN] / file->fcounters[CP_F_POSIX_WRITE_TIME];
    }

    /* loop to generate all reads/writes for this open/close sequence */
    for (i = 0; i < io_ops_this_cycle; i++)
    {
        /* calculate what value to use for i/o size and offset */
        determine_io_params(file, rw, 0, file->counters[CP_POSIX_OPENS], &io_sz, &io_off);
        if (!rw)
        {
            /* generate a read event */
772 773 774 775 776
            next_io_op.codes_op.op_type = CODES_WK_READ;
            next_io_op.codes_op.u.read.file_id = file->hash;
            next_io_op.codes_op.u.read.size = io_sz;
            next_io_op.codes_op.u.read.offset = io_off;
            next_io_op.start_time = cur_time;
777 778 779 780 781

            /* set the end time based on observed bandwidth and io size */
            if (rd_bw == 0.0)
                io_op_time = 0.0;
            else
782
                io_op_time = (io_sz / rd_bw);
783 784 785

            /* update time, accounting for metadata time */
            cur_time += (io_op_time + meta_op_time);
786
            next_io_op.end_time = cur_time;
787 788 789 790 791
            file->counters[CP_POSIX_READS]--;
        }
        else
        {
            /* generate a write event */
792 793 794 795 796
            next_io_op.codes_op.op_type = CODES_WK_WRITE;
            next_io_op.codes_op.u.write.file_id = file->hash;
            next_io_op.codes_op.u.write.size = io_sz;
            next_io_op.codes_op.u.write.offset = io_off;
            next_io_op.start_time = cur_time;
797 798 799 800 801

            /* set the end time based on observed bandwidth and io size */
            if (wr_bw == 0.0)
                io_op_time = 0.0;
            else
802
                io_op_time = (io_sz / wr_bw);
803 804 805

            /* update time, accounting for metadata time */
            cur_time += (io_op_time + meta_op_time);
806
            next_io_op.end_time = cur_time;
807 808 809 810 811 812 813
            file->counters[CP_POSIX_WRITES]--;
        }
        psx_rw_ops_remaining--;
        io_ops_this_rw--;
        assert(file->counters[CP_POSIX_READS] >= 0);
        assert(file->counters[CP_POSIX_WRITES] >= 0);

814 815
        /* store the i/o event */
        darshan_insert_next_io_op(io_context->io_op_dat, &next_io_op);
816 817 818 819 820 821 822 823 824 825 826 827 828 829 830 831 832 833 834 835

        /* determine whether to toggle between reads and writes */
        if (!io_ops_this_rw && psx_rw_ops_remaining)
        {
            /* toggle the read/write flag */
            rw ^= 1;
            file->counters[CP_RW_SWITCHES]--;

            /* determine how many io ops to do before next rw switch */
            if (!rw)
                io_ops_this_rw = file->counters[CP_POSIX_READS] /
                                 ((file->counters[CP_RW_SWITCHES] / 2) + 1);
            else
                io_ops_this_rw = file->counters[CP_POSIX_WRITES] /
                                 ((file->counters[CP_RW_SWITCHES] / 2) + 1);
        }

        if (i != (io_ops_this_cycle - 1))
        {
            /* update current time to account for possible delay between i/o operations */
836
            cur_time += inter_io_delay;
837 838 839 840 841 842 843 844 845 846 847 848
        }
    }

    /* reset the static rw flag if this is the last open-close cycle for this file */
    if (file->counters[CP_POSIX_OPENS] == 1)
    {
        rw = -1;
    }

    return cur_time;
}

849 850
static double generate_psx_coll_io_events(
    struct darshan_file *file, int64_t ind_io_ops_this_cycle, int64_t coll_io_ops_this_cycle,
851 852
    int64_t nprocs, int64_t aggregator_cnt, double inter_io_delay, double meta_op_time,
    double cur_time, struct rank_io_context *io_context)
853 854 855 856 857 858 859 860 861 862 863 864
{
    static int rw = -1; /* rw = 1 for write, 0 for read, -1 for uninitialized */
    static int64_t io_ops_this_rw;
    static double rd_bw = 0.0, wr_bw = 0.0;
    int64_t psx_rw_ops_remaining = file->counters[CP_POSIX_READS] + file->counters[CP_POSIX_WRITES];
    int64_t total_io_ops_this_cycle = ind_io_ops_this_cycle + coll_io_ops_this_cycle;
    int64_t total_coll_io_ops =
            (file->counters[CP_COLL_READS] + file->counters[CP_COLL_WRITES]) / nprocs;
    int64_t tmp_rank;
    int64_t next_ind_io_rank = 0;
    int64_t io_cnt;
    int64_t ranks_per_aggregator = nprocs / aggregator_cnt;
865
    int64_t ind_ops_remaining = 0;
866 867 868 869 870 871 872 873 874 875 876 877 878 879 880 881 882 883 884 885 886 887 888 889 890 891 892 893 894 895
    double io_op_time;
    double max_cur_time = 0.0;
    int ind_coll;
    size_t io_sz;
    off_t io_off;
    int64_t i, j;
    struct darshan_io_op next_io_op;

    if (!total_io_ops_this_cycle)
        return cur_time;

    /* initialze static variables when a new file is opened */
    if (rw == -1)
    {
        /* initialize rw to be the first i/o operation found in the log */
        if (file->fcounters[CP_F_WRITE_START_TIMESTAMP] == 0.0)
            rw = 0;
        else if (file->fcounters[CP_F_READ_START_TIMESTAMP] == 0.0)
            rw = 1;
        else
            rw = (file->fcounters[CP_F_READ_START_TIMESTAMP] <
                  file->fcounters[CP_F_WRITE_START_TIMESTAMP]) ? 0 : 1;

        /* initialize the rd and wr bandwidth values using total io size and time */
        if (file->fcounters[CP_F_POSIX_READ_TIME])
            rd_bw = file->counters[CP_BYTES_READ] / file->fcounters[CP_F_POSIX_READ_TIME];
        if (file->fcounters[CP_F_POSIX_WRITE_TIME])
            wr_bw = file->counters[CP_BYTES_WRITTEN] / file->fcounters[CP_F_POSIX_WRITE_TIME];
    }

896 897 898 899 900 901 902 903 904 905 906 907 908 909 910 911 912 913 914 915 916 917
    /* determine how many io ops to do before next rw switch */
    if (!rw)
    {
        if (file->counters[CP_COLL_OPENS])
            io_ops_this_rw =
                ((file->counters[CP_COLL_READS] / nprocs) + file->counters[CP_INDEP_READS]) /
                ((file->counters[CP_RW_SWITCHES] / (2 * aggregator_cnt)) + 1);
        else
            io_ops_this_rw = file->counters[CP_POSIX_READS] /
                             ((file->counters[CP_RW_SWITCHES] / (2 * aggregator_cnt)) + 1);
    }
    else
    {
        if (file->counters[CP_COLL_OPENS])
            io_ops_this_rw =
                ((file->counters[CP_COLL_WRITES] / nprocs) + file->counters[CP_INDEP_WRITES]) /
                ((file->counters[CP_RW_SWITCHES] / (2 * aggregator_cnt)) + 1);
        else
            io_ops_this_rw = file->counters[CP_POSIX_WRITES] /
                             ((file->counters[CP_RW_SWITCHES] / (2 * aggregator_cnt)) + 1);
    }

918 919 920 921 922
    if (coll_io_ops_this_cycle)
        ind_ops_remaining = ceil((double)ind_io_ops_this_cycle / coll_io_ops_this_cycle);
    else
        ind_ops_remaining = ind_io_ops_this_cycle;

923 924
    for (i = 0; i < total_io_ops_this_cycle; i++)
    {
925
        if (ind_ops_remaining)
926 927 928 929
        {
            ind_coll = 0;
            tmp_rank = (next_ind_io_rank++) % nprocs;
            io_cnt = 1;
930 931
            ind_io_ops_this_cycle--;
            ind_ops_remaining--;
932 933 934 935 936 937 938 939 940
            if (!rw)
                file->counters[CP_INDEP_READS]--;
            else
                file->counters[CP_INDEP_WRITES]--;
        }
        else
        {
            ind_coll = 1;
            tmp_rank = 0;
941
            coll_io_ops_this_cycle--;
942 943 944
            if (!rw)
            {
                io_cnt = ceil((double)(file->counters[CP_POSIX_READS] -
945
                              file->counters[CP_INDEP_READS]) / 
946 947 948 949 950 951
                              (file->counters[CP_COLL_READS] / nprocs));
                file->counters[CP_COLL_READS] -= nprocs;
            }
            else
            {
                io_cnt = ceil((double)(file->counters[CP_POSIX_WRITES] -
952
                              file->counters[CP_INDEP_WRITES]) / 
953 954 955
                              (file->counters[CP_COLL_WRITES] / nprocs));
                file->counters[CP_COLL_WRITES] -= nprocs;
            }
956 957 958 959 960 961 962 963
            assert(io_cnt <= io_ops_this_rw);

            if (coll_io_ops_this_cycle)
                ind_ops_remaining = ceil((double)ind_io_ops_this_cycle / coll_io_ops_this_cycle);
            else
                ind_ops_remaining = ind_io_ops_this_cycle;

            cur_time = generate_barrier_event(file, 0, cur_time, io_context);
964 965 966 967 968 969 970 971 972 973 974 975 976 977 978 979 980 981 982 983 984 985 986 987 988 989 990 991 992 993 994 995 996 997 998 999 1000 1001 1002 1003 1004 1005 1006 1007 1008 1009 1010 1011 1012 1013 1014 1015 1016 1017
        }

        for (j = 0; j < io_cnt; j++)
        {
            determine_io_params(file, rw, ind_coll, (ind_coll) ? total_coll_io_ops :
                                file->counters[CP_POSIX_OPENS] / nprocs, &io_sz, &io_off);
            if (!rw)
            {
                /* generate a read event */
                next_io_op.codes_op.op_type = CODES_WK_READ;
                next_io_op.codes_op.u.read.file_id = file->hash;
                next_io_op.codes_op.u.read.size = io_sz;
                next_io_op.codes_op.u.read.offset = io_off;
                next_io_op.start_time = cur_time;

                /* set the end time based on observed bandwidth and io size */
                if (rd_bw == 0.0)
                    io_op_time = 0.0;
                else
                    io_op_time = (io_sz / rd_bw);
                
                next_io_op.end_time = cur_time + io_op_time + meta_op_time;
                file->counters[CP_POSIX_READS]--;
            }
            else
            {
                /* generate a write event */
                next_io_op.codes_op.op_type = CODES_WK_WRITE;
                next_io_op.codes_op.u.write.file_id = file->hash;
                next_io_op.codes_op.u.write.size = io_sz;
                next_io_op.codes_op.u.write.offset = io_off;
                next_io_op.start_time = cur_time;

                /* set the end time based on observed bandwidth and io size */
                if (wr_bw == 0.0)
                    io_op_time = 0.0;
                else
                    io_op_time = (io_sz / wr_bw);

                next_io_op.end_time = cur_time + io_op_time + meta_op_time;
                file->counters[CP_POSIX_WRITES]--;
            }
            psx_rw_ops_remaining--;
            assert(file->counters[CP_POSIX_READS] >= 0);
            assert(file->counters[CP_POSIX_WRITES] >= 0);

            /*  store the i/o event */
            if (tmp_rank == io_context->my_rank)
                darshan_insert_next_io_op(io_context->io_op_dat, &next_io_op);

            if (next_io_op.end_time > max_cur_time)
                max_cur_time = next_io_op.end_time;

            tmp_rank += ranks_per_aggregator;
1018
            if (ind_coll && (tmp_rank >= (ranks_per_aggregator * aggregator_cnt)))
1019 1020 1021 1022 1023 1024 1025 1026
            {
                tmp_rank = 0;
                cur_time = max_cur_time;
                max_cur_time = 0.0;
            }
        }
        io_ops_this_rw--;

1027 1028 1029 1030 1031 1032 1033 1034 1035 1036 1037 1038 1039 1040 1041 1042 1043 1044 1045
        if (ind_coll)
        {
            total_coll_io_ops--;

            cur_time = max_cur_time;
            if (i != (total_io_ops_this_cycle - 1))
                cur_time += inter_io_delay;
        }
        else
        {
            if (tmp_rank == (nprocs - 1))
                cur_time = max_cur_time;

            if (i != (total_io_ops_this_cycle - 1))
                cur_time += inter_io_delay;
            else
                cur_time = max_cur_time;
        }

1046 1047 1048 1049 1050 1051 1052 1053 1054 1055 1056 1057 1058 1059 1060 1061 1062 1063 1064 1065 1066 1067 1068 1069 1070 1071 1072 1073 1074 1075 1076 1077 1078 1079 1080 1081 1082 1083 1084
        /* determine whether to toggle between reads and writes */
        if (!io_ops_this_rw && psx_rw_ops_remaining)
        {
            /* toggle the read/write flag */
            rw ^= 1;
            file->counters[CP_RW_SWITCHES] -= aggregator_cnt;

            /* determine how many io ops to do before next rw switch */
            if (!rw)
            {
                if (file->counters[CP_COLL_OPENS])
                    io_ops_this_rw =
                        ((file->counters[CP_COLL_READS] / nprocs) +
                        file->counters[CP_INDEP_READS]) / ((file->counters[CP_RW_SWITCHES] /
                        (2 * aggregator_cnt)) + 1);
                else
                    io_ops_this_rw = file->counters[CP_POSIX_READS] /
                                     ((file->counters[CP_RW_SWITCHES] / (2 * aggregator_cnt)) + 1);
            }
            else
            {
                if (file->counters[CP_COLL_OPENS])
                    io_ops_this_rw =
                        ((file->counters[CP_COLL_WRITES] / nprocs) +
                        file->counters[CP_INDEP_WRITES]) / ((file->counters[CP_RW_SWITCHES] /
                        (2 * aggregator_cnt)) + 1);
                else
                    io_ops_this_rw = file->counters[CP_POSIX_WRITES] /
                                     ((file->counters[CP_RW_SWITCHES] / (2 * aggregator_cnt)) + 1);
            }
        }
    }

    /* reset the static rw flag if this is the last open-close cycle for this file */
    if (file->counters[CP_POSIX_OPENS] <= nprocs)
    {
        rw = -1;
    }

1085
    return cur_time;
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}

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static void determine_io_params(
    struct darshan_file *file, int write_flag, int coll_flag, int64_t io_cycles, 
    size_t *io_sz, off_t *io_off)
{
    static int seq_rd_flag = -1;
    static int seq_wr_flag = -1;
    static uint64_t next_rd_off = 0;
    static uint64_t next_wr_off = 0;
    static int64_t rd_common_accesses[4] = { 0, 0, 0, 0 };
    static int64_t wr_common_accesses[4] = { 0, 0, 0, 0 };
    static int all_common_flag = -1;
    int64_t *size_bins; /* 10 size bins for io operations */
    int64_t *common_accesses = &(file->counters[CP_ACCESS1_ACCESS]); /* 4 common accesses */
    int64_t *common_access_counts = &(file->counters[CP_ACCESS1_COUNT]); /* common access counts */
    int64_t *total_io_size;
    int64_t last_io_byte;
    int64_t tmp_byte_counter = 0;
    int size_bin_ndx;
    int i, j = 0;
    int64_t bin_min_size[10] = { 0, 100, 1024, 10 * 1024, 100 * 1024, 1024 * 1024, 4 * 1024 * 1024,
                                 10 * 1024 * 1024, 100 * 1024 * 1024, 1024 * 1024 * 1024 };
    int64_t bin_def_size[10] = { 40, 512, 4 * 1024, 60 * 1024, 512 * 1024, 2 * 1024 * 1024,
                                 6 * 1024 * 1024, 40 * 1024 * 1024, 400 * 1024 * 1024,
                                 1 * 1024 * 1024 * 1024 };

    /* determine how to assign common access counters to reads and/or writes */
    if (all_common_flag == -1)
    {
        for (i = 0; i < 4; i++)
        {
            tmp_byte_counter += (common_accesses[i] * common_access_counts[i]);
        }

        if (tmp_byte_counter == (file->counters[CP_BYTES_WRITTEN] + file->counters[CP_BYTES_READ]))
        {
            all_common_flag = 1;
        }
        else
        {
            all_common_flag = 0;
        }
    }

    /* assign data values depending on whether the operation is a read or write */
    if (write_flag)
    {
        size_bins = &(file->counters[CP_SIZE_WRITE_0_100]);
        total_io_size = &(file->counters[CP_BYTES_WRITTEN]);
        last_io_byte = file->counters[CP_MAX_BYTE_WRITTEN];

        if (seq_wr_flag == -1)
        {
            if ((file->counters[CP_POSIX_WRITES] -
                ((*total_io_size - last_io_byte - 1) / (last_io_byte + 1)) - 1) ==
                file->counters[CP_SEQ_WRITES])
            {
                seq_wr_flag = 1;
            }
            else
            {
                seq_wr_flag = 0;
            }
        }
    }
    else
    {
        size_bins = &(file->counters[CP_SIZE_READ_0_100]);
        total_io_size = &(file->counters[CP_BYTES_READ]);
        last_io_byte = file->counters[CP_MAX_BYTE_READ];

        if (seq_rd_flag == -1)
        {
            if ((file->counters[CP_POSIX_READS] -
                ((*total_io_size - last_io_byte - 1) / (last_io_byte + 1)) - 1) ==
                file->counters[CP_SEQ_READS])
            {
                seq_rd_flag = 1;
            }
            else
            {
                seq_rd_flag = 0;
            }
        }
    }

    *io_sz = 0;
    if ((*total_io_size ==  0) || (write_flag && (file->counters[CP_POSIX_WRITES] == 1)) ||
        (!write_flag && (file->counters[CP_POSIX_READS] == 1)))
    {
        if (*total_io_size >= 0)
            *io_sz = *total_io_size;
    }
    else if (all_common_flag)
    {
        for (i = 0; i < 4; i++)
        {
            if (!write_flag && rd_common_accesses[i])
            {
                *io_sz = common_accesses[i];
                rd_common_accesses[i]--;
                common_access_counts[i]--;
                break;
            }
            else if (write_flag && wr_common_accesses[i])
            {
                *io_sz = common_accesses[i];
                wr_common_accesses[i]--;
                common_access_counts[i]--;
                break;
            }
        }

        if (*io_sz == 0)
        {
            for (i = 0; i < 4; i++)
            {
                if (write_flag)
                {
                    wr_common_accesses[i] = (common_access_counts[i] / io_cycles);
                    if ((*io_sz == 0) && wr_common_accesses[i])
                    {
                        *io_sz = common_accesses[i];
                        wr_common_accesses[i]--;
                        common_access_counts[i]--;
                    }
                }
                else
                {
                    rd_common_accesses[i] = (common_access_counts[i] / io_cycles);
                    if ((*io_sz == 0) && rd_common_accesses[i])
                    {
                        *io_sz = common_accesses[i];
                        rd_common_accesses[i]--;
                        common_access_counts[i]--;
                    }
                }
            }
        }
        assert(*io_sz);
    }
    else
    {
        /* try to assign a common access first */
        for (i = 0; i < 10; i++)
        {
            for (j = 0; j < 4; j++)
            {
                if (size_bins[i] && common_access_counts[j] &&
                    IO_IS_IN_SIZE_BIN_RANGE(common_accesses[j], i, bin_min_size))
                {
                    *io_sz = common_accesses[j];
                    common_access_counts[j]--;
                    break;
                }
            }
            if (*io_sz)
                break;
        }

        /* if no common accesses left, then assign a random io size */
        if (*io_sz == 0)
        {
            size_bin_ndx = rand() % 10;
            for (i = 0; i <  10; i++)
            {
                if (size_bins[size_bin_ndx])
                {
                    *io_sz = bin_def_size[size_bin_ndx];
                    break;
                }
                size_bin_ndx = (size_bin_ndx + 1) % 10;
            }
        }
        assert(*io_sz);
    }

    *total_io_size -= *io_sz;
    for (i = 0; i < 10; i++)
    {
        if (IO_IS_IN_SIZE_BIN_RANGE(*io_sz, i, bin_min_size))
            size_bins[i]--;
    }

    /* next, determine the offset to use */

    /*  for now we just assign a random offset that makes sure not to write past the recorded
     *  last byte written in the file.
     */
    if (*io_sz == 0)
    {
        *io_off = last_io_byte + 1;
    }
    else if (write_flag && seq_wr_flag)
    {
        if ((next_wr_off + *io_sz) > (last_io_byte + 1))
            next_wr_off = 0;

        *io_off = next_wr_off;
        next_wr_off += *io_sz;
    }
    else if (!write_flag && seq_rd_flag)
    {
        if ((next_rd_off + *io_sz) > (last_io_byte + 1))
            next_rd_off = 0;

        *io_off = next_rd_off;
        next_rd_off += *io_sz;
    }
    else if (*io_sz < last_io_byte)
    {
        *io_off = (off_t)rand() % (last_io_byte - *io_sz);
    }
    else
    {
        *io_off = 0;
    }

    /* reset static variable if this is the last i/o op for this file */
    if ((file->counters[CP_POSIX_READS] + file->counters[CP_POSIX_WRITES]) == 1)
    {
        next_rd_off = next_wr_off = 0;
        seq_wr_flag = seq_rd_flag = -1;
        all_common_flag = -1;
        for (i = 0; i < 4; i++)
            rd_common_accesses[i] = wr_common_accesses[i] = 0;
    }

    return;
}

/* calculate the simulated "delay" between different i/o events using delay info
 * from the file counters */
static void calc_io_delays(
    struct darshan_file *file, int64_t num_opens, int64_t num_io_ops, double delay_per_cycle,
    double *first_io_delay, double *close_delay, double *inter_open_delay, double *inter_io_delay)
{
    double first_io_time, last_io_time;
    double first_io_pct, close_pct, inter_open_pct, inter_io_pct;
    double total_delay_pct;
    double tmp_inter_io_pct, tmp_inter_open_pct;

    if (delay_per_cycle > 0.0)
    {
        /* determine the time of the first io operation */
        if (!file->fcounters[CP_F_WRITE_START_TIMESTAMP])
            first_io_time = file->fcounters[CP_F_READ_START_TIMESTAMP];
        else if (!file->fcounters[CP_F_READ_START_TIMESTAMP])
            first_io_time = file->fcounters[CP_F_WRITE_START_TIMESTAMP];
        else if (file->fcounters[CP_F_READ_START_TIMESTAMP] <
                 file->fcounters[CP_F_WRITE_START_TIMESTAMP])
            first_io_time = file->fcounters[CP_F_READ_START_TIMESTAMP];
        else
            first_io_time = file->fcounters[CP_F_WRITE_START_TIMESTAMP];

        /* determine the time of the last io operation */
        if (file->fcounters[CP_F_READ_END_TIMESTAMP] > file->fcounters[CP_F_WRITE_END_TIMESTAMP])
            last_io_time = file->fcounters[CP_F_READ_END_TIMESTAMP];
        else
            last_io_time = file->fcounters[CP_F_WRITE_END_TIMESTAMP];

        /* no delay contribution for inter-open delay if there is only a single open */
        if (num_opens > 1)
            inter_open_pct = DEF_INTER_CYC_DELAY_PCT;

        /* no delay contribution for inter-io delay if there is one or less io op */
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        if ((num_io_ops - num_opens) > 0)
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            inter_io_pct = DEF_INTER_IO_DELAY_PCT;

        /* determine delay contribution for first io and close delays */
        if (first_io_time != 0.0)
        {
            first_io_pct = (first_io_time - file->fcounters[CP_F_OPEN_TIMESTAMP]) / delay_per_cycle;
            close_pct = (file->fcounters[CP_F_CLOSE_TIMESTAMP] - last_io_time) / delay_per_cycle;
        }
        else
        {
            first_io_pct = 0.0;
            close_pct = 1 - inter_open_pct;
        }

        /* adjust per open delay percentages using a simple heuristic */
        total_delay_pct = inter_open_pct + inter_io_pct + first_io_pct + close_pct;
        if ((total_delay_pct < 1) && (inter_open_pct || inter_io_pct))
        {
            /* only adjust inter-open and inter-io delays if we underestimate */
            tmp_inter_open_pct = (inter_open_pct / (inter_open_pct + inter_io_pct)) *
                                 (1 - first_io_pct - close_pct);
            tmp_inter_io_pct = (inter_io_pct / (inter_open_pct + inter_io_pct)) *
                               (1 - first_io_pct - close_pct);
            inter_open_pct = tmp_inter_open_pct;
            inter_io_pct = tmp_inter_io_pct;
        }
        else
        {
            inter_open_pct += (inter_open_pct / total_delay_pct) * (1 - total_delay_pct);
            inter_io_pct += (inter_io_pct / total_delay_pct) * (1 - total_delay_pct);
            first_io_pct += (first_io_pct / total_delay_pct) * (1 - total_delay_pct);
            close_pct += (close_pct / total_delay_pct) * (1 - total_delay_pct);
        }

        *first_io_delay = (first_io_pct * delay_per_cycle);
        *close_delay = (close_pct * delay_per_cycle);
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        if (num_opens > 1)
            *inter_open_delay = (inter_open_pct * delay_per_cycle) *
                                ((double)num_opens / (num_opens - 1));
        if ((num_io_ops - num_opens) > 0)
            *inter_io_delay = (inter_io_pct * delay_per_cycle) *
                              ((double)num_io_ops / (num_io_ops - num_opens));
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    }

    return;
}

/* check to make sure file stats are valid and properly formatted */
static void file_sanity_check(
    struct darshan_file *file, struct darshan_job *job)
{
    assert(file->counters[CP_POSIX_OPENS] != -1);
    assert(file->fcounters[CP_F_OPEN_TIMESTAMP] != -1);
    assert(file->counters[CP_COLL_OPENS] != -1);
    assert(file->fcounters[CP_F_CLOSE_TIMESTAMP] != -1);
    assert(file->counters[CP_POSIX_READS] != -1);
    assert(file->counters[CP_POSIX_WRITES] != -1);
    assert(file->fcounters[CP_F_POSIX_READ_TIME] != -1);
    assert(file->fcounters[CP_F_POSIX_WRITE_TIME] != -1);
    assert(file->fcounters[CP_F_POSIX_META_TIME] != -1);
    assert(file->fcounters[CP_F_READ_START_TIMESTAMP] != -1);
    assert(file->fcounters[CP_F_WRITE_START_TIMESTAMP] != -1);
    assert(file->fcounters[CP_F_READ_END_TIMESTAMP] != -1);
    assert(file->fcounters[CP_F_WRITE_END_TIMESTAMP] != -1);
    assert(file->counters[CP_BYTES_READ] != -1);
    assert(file->counters[CP_BYTES_WRITTEN] != -1);
    assert(file->counters[CP_RW_SWITCHES] != -1);

    /* adjust timestamps if they are given in absolute unix time */
    if (file->fcounters[CP_F_OPEN_TIMESTAMP] > job->start_time)
    {
        file->fcounters[CP_F_OPEN_TIMESTAMP] -= job->start_time;
        if (file->fcounters[CP_F_OPEN_TIMESTAMP] < 0.0)
            file->fcounters[CP_F_OPEN_TIMESTAMP] = 0.0;

        file->fcounters[CP_F_READ_START_TIMESTAMP] -= job->start_time;
        if (file->fcounters[CP_F_READ_START_TIMESTAMP] < 0.0)
            file->fcounters[CP_F_READ_START_TIMESTAMP] = 0.0;

        file->fcounters[CP_F_WRITE_START_TIMESTAMP] -= job->start_time;
        if (file->fcounters[CP_F_WRITE_START_TIMESTAMP] < 0.0)
            file->fcounters[CP_F_WRITE_START_TIMESTAMP] = 0.0;

        file->fcounters[CP_F_CLOSE_TIMESTAMP] -= job->start_time;
        if (file->fcounters[CP_F_CLOSE_TIMESTAMP] < 0.0)
            file->fcounters[CP_F_CLOSE_TIMESTAMP] = 0.0;

        file->fcounters[CP_F_READ_END_TIMESTAMP] -= job->start_time;
        if (file->fcounters[CP_F_READ_END_TIMESTAMP] < 0.0)
            file->fcounters[CP_F_READ_END_TIMESTAMP] = 0.0;

        file->fcounters[CP_F_WRITE_END_TIMESTAMP] -= job->start_time;
        if (file->fcounters[CP_F_WRITE_END_TIMESTAMP] < 0.0)
            file->fcounters[CP_F_WRITE_END_TIMESTAMP] = 0.0;
    }

    /* set file close time to the end of execution if it is not given */
    if (file->fcounters[CP_F_CLOSE_TIMESTAMP] == 0.0)
        file->fcounters[CP_F_CLOSE_TIMESTAMP] = job->end_time - job->start_time + 1;

    /* collapse fopen/fread/etc. calls into the corresponding open/read/etc. counters */
    file->counters[CP_POSIX_OPENS] += file->counters[CP_POSIX_FOPENS];
    file->counters[CP_POSIX_READS] += file->counters[CP_POSIX_FREADS];
    file->counters[CP_POSIX_WRITES] += file->counters[CP_POSIX_FWRITES];

    return;
}
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/*
 * Local variables:
 *  c-indent-level: 4
 *  c-basic-offset: 4
 * End:
 *
 * vim: ft=c ts=8 sts=4 sw=4 expandtab
 */